Recent Publications

My most recent publication are

  • Educology of Teaching (May, 2020) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback)
  • Education, Educology and Meta-Educology: A Conversation. (December, 2018) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback)
  • Perspectives on Education as Educology (June, 2018) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback )
  • Education, Mindfulness and Educology (December, 2017) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback )
  • Education, Research and Educology (December, 2016) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback )
  • Education, Universities and Educology (March 2015) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback )
  • Education, Curriculum and Educology (May 2014) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback )
  • Education, Knowledge and Educology (July 2013) (Kindle eBook and Kindle Direct Publishing paperback )

Educology of Teaching (2020) The educological perspective is one which chooses the field of phenomena denoted by the term education as its object of inquiry. From the educological perspective, education, as an object of inquiry, is a field of phenomena which consists of the basic elements of teacher, student, content and setting, all standing in some relation to each other (e.g. constructive, reconstructive, destructive, sustaining). Educological inquiry provides descriptions, analyses and explanations of the elements and the relations among the elements which constitute education. Educological inquiry also provides justified evaluations of and prescriptions for practices, relationships and states of affairs in education. When educological inquiry is careful, well-disciplined and fruitful, the product is recorded true statements about education. A term which denotes recorded true statements is knowledge, and a term which denotes knowledge about education is educology. The educology of teaching is knowledge about the relationships between teaching and education. The educology of teaching includes analytic philosophical educology, normative philosophical educology, historical educology, jurisprudential educology, scientific educology and praxiological educology of teaching. In Educology of Teaching the educological perspective is used to address four key questions. (1) What is teaching? (2) What do teachers do? (3) What is effective teaching? (4) What is good teaching? The first question, “What is teaching?” is analyzed and identified as an analytic philosophical educological question. The question calls for analysis of what set of phenomena is denoted by the term teaching. The analysis reveals that the term is used to denote (1) intentionally guiding students in their study, (2) intentionally and successfully guiding students in their study such that the students learn what they are studying and (3) happenstance (misadventure and/or serendipity) which causes an extension of one’s range of knowing. The first denotation – intentionally guiding students in their study – is chosen as the appropriate one for careful and disciplined educological discourse about teaching. The second question, “What do teachers do?” is analyzed and identified as a scientific educological question. Answers to this question require observation of teachers in action to identify their typical language moves and patterns of conduct in the course of playing the role of teacher. A report is presented of the current state of knowledge about what teachers say and otherwise do in the course of carrying out their duties as teachers. The third question, “What is effective teaching?” is analyzed and identified as a praxiological educological question. Answers to this question require systematic observation and/or experimentation to identify teaching practices and relationships which maximize the probabilities that students will be successful in achieving some nominated set of intended learning outcomes. A report is presented of the current state of knowledge about effective teaching practices and relationships. The fourth question, “What is good teaching?” is analyzed and identified as a normative philosophical educological question. Answers to this question require the use of normative reasoning to identify and justify a set of criteria by which it is justifiable to judge what constitutes good teaching. Normative arguments are presented for identification and justification of a set of attributes essential to ethical teaching. Normative arguments are also presented for the identification and justification of teaching as being intrinsically and extrinsically good. The normative argument is presented that teaching is intrinsically good when it is part of philomathic education. The normative argument is presented that teaching is extrinsically good when it is part of, for example, occupational education, liberal education and/or health education. This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Education, Educology and Meta-Educology: A Conversation (2018) is a conversation between a teacher and a student about the relationships among education, educology and meta-educology. Through the course of the conversation it is established that the term education in ordinary language denotes (1) teaching, (2) learning as process, (3) learning as product, (4) teaching and studying under guidance and (5) educology – knowledge about teaching and studying under guidance. Educology is the fund of recorded true statements about teaching and studying under guidance. Educology includes (1) analytic philosophical educology – knowledge about patterns and meanings of terms, expressions and sentences used in discourse among teachers, students and third parties in education, (2) normative philosophical educology – knowledge about good (and bad) states of affairs in education (3) historical educology – knowledge about past states of affairs in education, including what happened, why it happened and what followed, (4) scientific educology – knowledge about extant states of affairs in education, including what happens, why it happens and what will happen, (5) praxiological educology – knowledge about effective (and ineffective) practices and relations in education and (6) jurisprudential educology – knowledge about what is required, prohibited and allowed by rules, regulations and laws governing education. The basic elements of education are teachers, students, content and setting (physical, social, cultural). Someone (a teacher) intentionally provides guidance and opportunities for someone (a set of students) to study under guidance some content (some fund of knowledge and/or some set of exemplifications of knowing) in some physical, social and cultural setting with a view in mind that those studying under guidance extend their range of knowing and understanding. Education can be unofficial (conducted within families, peer groups, clubs, work places) or official (conducted within schools, academies, institutes, colleges, universities). Education can be effective (students achieve intended learning outcomes) or ineffective (students do not achieve intended learning outcomes). Education can be good (the process is ethical and benign, the intended learning outcomes are worthwhile and desirable) or bad (the process is unethical and harmful, the intended learning outcomes are not worthwhile nor desirable). The ideal state of affairs for education is that the intended learning outcomes are worthwhile, the students want to achieve the outcomes, they like the guided study activities provided to them and they achieve the intended learning outcomes. In addition to the four basic elements of education, unofficial and official education have derivative components: (1) language, (2) resources, (3) methods, (4) styles, (5) focus, (6) organization, (7) pace, (8) sequence, (9) initiation, (10) intentions, (11) goal structures, (12) assessment, (13) evaluation, (14) strategies. Official education also has (15) certification, (16) curriculum, (17) syllabi, (18) unit plans and (19) lesson plans. Effective education produces intentional guided learning. Other categories of learning (outside of education) are discovery learning, compelled learning and accidental learning. Learning extends one’s range of knowing, and range of knowing extends one’s mindfulness. Mindfulness extends one’s personal domain of discourse and vice versa. Discovery learning from problem solving enables one’s mindfulness to transcend the knowing achieved from intended guided learning, compelled learning and accidental learning. Meta-educology is knowledge about the formation of well defined terms for discourse about education and the formation, transformation and verification of statements about education. Meta-educology provides knowledge about how to form descriptive theory, empirical facts, explanatory theory and normative theory for education. This book is available as an e-Book and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Perspectives on Education as Educology (2018, first published by University Press of America, 1981) Perspectives on Education as Educology provides a discussion, from many points of view, of the justification for the use of the term educology to name knowledge about education and of the distinguishing characteristics, applications and utility of educology. Questions addressed include (1) What is education? (2) What is knowledge about education? (3) What is an appropriate name for knowledge about education? (4) What kinds of knowledge about education can be distinguished? (5) How is knowledge about education produced? (6) What uses can be made of knowledge about education? (7) How can knowledge about education be used to extend professional and vocational education? (8) How can knowledge about education be used to extend liberal education? This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Education, Mindfulness and Educology (2017) The human psyche consists of experiencing interactions among conation, perception and cognition. The more that cognition is extended, the more that cognition can inform, guide and learn from the consequences of conation and perception. And the more that cognition is extended, the more mindfulness there is available in making choices, establishing purposes and formulating goals. Also, the greater the extension of cognition, the more competency there is available to apply in endeavors to achieve nominated goals. Mindfulness takes an individual from saying, “I didn’t know that I had a choice,” to saying, “I know what my options are, I know which choice is the best, I know why it is the best, I know what to do to achieve what I have chosen, and I stand accountable and responsible for the consequences of my choices.” Mindfulness provides the capacity to lead an authentic and responsible life. The means by which cognition is extended is through learning. Learning can be accidental learning, i.e. it can be by misadventure and happenstance. Learning can be compelled learning, i.e. it can arise from socialization, enculturation and indoctrination. Learning can be discovery learning, i.e. it can arise from independent deliberate unguided inquiry. And learning can be intentional guided learning, i.e. it can result from education. Education is the process in which someone teaches and someone intentionally studies under guidance some content within some context (physical, social and cultural) with the view in mind that those doing the studying extend their range of knowing and understanding. Through education, students can extend their mindfulness beyond the limitations of the initial social conditioning and enculturation of their childhood and adolescent years. Through discovery learning, i.e. learning achieved by independent inquiry, students can transcend the range of knowing and understanding achieved by means of education and extend their mindfulness beyond that which is possible to attain by accidental learning, compelled learning and intentional guided learning. This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Education, Research and Educology (2016) deals with the topic of how to conduct well disciplined research about the educational process. The argument is presented that educological research consists of the process of asking and answering questions about the educational process. Education is taken to be the process in which someone intentionally teaches and someone else intentionally undertakes to study some content in the context of some physical, social and cultural setting. When the educational process is successful, the students achieve an extension in their range of knowing. Different kinds of questions require different kinds of rules of research to adduce the necessary and sufficient evidence to form true answers to the questions.  At least five kinds of questions can be asked about education, and therefore there are at least five kinds of educological research that are possible about education. The result of successful and fruitful educological research is the correction and/or extension of educology, i.e. of warranted assertions about the educational process. This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Education, Universities and Educology (2015) The big question addressed is how can the structure of the fund of knowledge about education be used productively and fruitfully to organize university faculty, curriculum and research programs whose purpose is to teach, extend and disseminate knowledge about education. Part One deals with the questions of: (1) what is knowledge about education? (2) why is it desirable to use the term ‘educology’ to denote knowledge about education? (3) what is the origin of the term ‘educology’? (4) what kinds of knowledge about education are possible? (5) what disciplines are required to produce knowledge about education? (6) what are some different ways of organizing knowledge about education? (7) how do discipline, study and fund of knowledge differ? (8) how are the tasks of creating knowledge about education, teaching knowledge about education and using knowledge about education connected with each other and how do they differ? Part Two deals with the questions of: (1) What constitutes education? (2) What are the basic components of education? (3) What are the basic processes of education? (4) What are derivative features of education? (5) Where does curriculum fit into education? (6) How do official and unofficial education resemble and yet differ from each other? (7) What is the proper domain for educological research? (8) How are the tasks of creating knowledge about education, teaching knowledge about education and using knowledge about education connected with each other and how do they differ? Part Three deals with the questions of: (1) What uses can be made of educology in naming of organizations whose purpose it is to conduct research about education, teach about education and disseminate knowledge about education? (2) What uses can be made of the structure of educology in organizing faculties, curricula and research programs in universities? This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Education, Curriculum and Educology (2014) addresses the questions of (1) what is curriculum? (2) how does curriculum fit in the educational process? (3) what constitutes a sound curriculum plan? (4) what are some well established viewpoints about what should be included in a curriculum? (5) how do social, cultural and political forces affect curriculum? This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen

Education, Knowledge and Educology (2013) is a work in the philosophy of educology. It is an examination of the questions of (1) what is education, (2) what is knowledge about education and (3) how can that knowledge be organized so that it can be used fruitfully to take rational action in the educational process to pursue and achieve worthwhile intentions and purposes. Techniques of ordinary language analysis are used to illustrate how to address and answer these questions sensibly. This book is available as an eBook and paperback at amazon.com: James E. Christensen